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エラー: 新しいプロセスをフォークできません

ターミナルを再起動して、もう一度アップデートした。

~:$ pacman -Syu
~:$ pacman -Syu
:: パッケージデータベースの同期中...
 mingw32                                                         224.1 KiB   495K/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 mingw32.sig                                                      96.0   B  0.00B/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 mingw64                                                         223.0 KiB   738K/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 mingw64.sig                                                      96.0   B  0.00B/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 msys                                                            126.1 KiB   835K/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 msys.sig                                                         96.0   B  0.00B/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
:: システム全体の更新を開始...
依存関係を解決しています...
衝突するパッケージがないか確認しています...

パッケージ (12) bash-4.3.042-2  curl-7.45.0-1  flex-2.6.0-1  gcc-libs-4.9.2-6  gmp-6.1.0-1  grep-2.22-1  libcurl-7.45.0-1  libreadline-6.3.008-6
                mintty-1~2.2.1-1  msys2-runtime-2.4.0.16752.6eb10ef-1  ncurses-6.0.20151121-1  pacman-4.2.1.6258.f5bbd79-1

合計ダウンロード容量:  11.56 MiB
合計インストール容量:  59.12 MiB
最終的なアップグレード容量:  -0.36 MiB

:: インストールを行いますか? [Y/n]
:: パッケージを取得します ...
 msys2-runtime-2.4.0.16752.6eb10ef-1-x86_64                        2.3 MiB  1285K/s 00:02 [###################################################] 100%
 bash-4.3.042-2-x86_64                                          1865.2 KiB  1375K/s 00:01 [###################################################] 100%
 gcc-libs-4.9.2-6-x86_64                                         646.9 KiB  1428K/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 gmp-6.1.0-1-x86_64                                              359.7 KiB  2.28M/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 ncurses-6.0.20151121-1-x86_64                                  1117.3 KiB  1478K/s 00:01 [###################################################] 100%
 libcurl-7.45.0-1-x86_64                                         167.7 KiB  81.9M/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 curl-7.45.0-1-x86_64                                            578.7 KiB  1891K/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 flex-2.6.0-1-x86_64                                             280.4 KiB  1845K/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 grep-2.22-1-x86_64                                              220.7 KiB  1462K/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 libreadline-6.3.008-6-x86_64                                    243.3 KiB  1600K/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 mintty-1~2.2.1-1-x86_64                                         134.2 KiB   131M/s 00:00 [###################################################] 100%
 pacman-4.2.1.6258.f5bbd79-1-x86_64                                3.8 MiB  1289K/s 00:03 [###################################################] 100%
(12/12) キーリングのキーを確認                                                            [###################################################] 100%
(12/12) パッケージの整合性をチェック                                                      [###################################################] 100%
(12/12) パッケージファイルのロード                                                        [###################################################] 100%
(12/12) ファイルの衝突をチェック                                                          [###################################################] 100%
(12/12) 空き容量を確認                                                                    [###################################################] 100%
( 1/12) 更新 msys2-runtime                                                                [###################################################] 100%
( 2/12) 更新 bash                                                                         [###################################################] 100%
( 3/12) 更新 gcc-libs                                                                     [###################################################] 100%
      3 [main] pacman (31996) C:\msys64\usr\bin\pacman.exe: *** fatal error - cygheap base mismatch detected - 0x18031C400/0x180320400.
This problem is probably due to using incompatible versions of the cygwin DLL.
Search for cygwin1.dll using the Windows Start->Find/Search facility
and delete all but the most recent version.  The most recent version *should*
reside in x:\cygwin\bin, where 'x' is the drive on which you have
installed the cygwin distribution.  Rebooting is also suggested if you
are unable to find another cygwin DLL.
      0 [main] pacman 35528 fork: child -1 - forked process 31996 died unexpectedly, retry 0, exit code 0xC0000142, errno 11
エラー: 新しいプロセスをフォークできません (Resource temporarily unavailable)
( 4/12) 更新 gmp                                                                          [###################################################] 100%
      1 [main] pacman (4132) C:\msys64\usr\bin\pacman.exe: *** fatal error - cygheap base mismatch detected - 0x18031C400/0x180320400.
This problem is probably due to using incompatible versions of the cygwin DLL.
Search for cygwin1.dll using the Windows Start->Find/Search facility
and delete all but the most recent version.  The most recent version *should*
reside in x:\cygwin\bin, where 'x' is the drive on which you have
installed the cygwin distribution.  Rebooting is also suggested if you
are unable to find another cygwin DLL.
  91044 [main] pacman 35528 fork: child -1 - forked process 4132 died unexpectedly, retry 0, exit code 0xC0000142, errno 11
エラー: 新しいプロセスをフォークできません (Resource temporarily unavailable)
( 5/12) 更新 ncurses                                                                      [###################################################] 100%
( 6/12) 更新 libcurl                                                                      [###################################################] 100%
( 7/12) 更新 curl                                                                         [###################################################] 100%
( 8/12) 更新 flex                                                                         [###################################################] 100%
      1 [main] pacman (21096) C:\msys64\usr\bin\pacman.exe: *** fatal error - cygheap base mismatch detected - 0x18031C400/0x180320400.
This problem is probably due to using incompatible versions of the cygwin DLL.
Search for cygwin1.dll using the Windows Start->Find/Search facility
and delete all but the most recent version.  The most recent version *should*
reside in x:\cygwin\bin, where 'x' is the drive on which you have
installed the cygwin distribution.  Rebooting is also suggested if you
are unable to find another cygwin DLL.
7892372 [main] pacman 35528 fork: child -1 - forked process 21096 died unexpectedly, retry 0, exit code 0xC0000142, errno 11
エラー: 新しいプロセスをフォークできません (Resource temporarily unavailable)
( 9/12) 更新 grep                                                                         [###################################################] 100%
      1 [main] pacman (28364) C:\msys64\usr\bin\pacman.exe: *** fatal error - cygheap base mismatch detected - 0x18031C400/0x180320400.
This problem is probably due to using incompatible versions of the cygwin DLL.
Search for cygwin1.dll using the Windows Start->Find/Search facility
and delete all but the most recent version.  The most recent version *should*
reside in x:\cygwin\bin, where 'x' is the drive on which you have
installed the cygwin distribution.  Rebooting is also suggested if you
are unable to find another cygwin DLL.
8141428 [main] pacman 35528 fork: child -1 - forked process 28364 died unexpectedly, retry 0, exit code 0xC0000142, errno 11
エラー: 新しいプロセスをフォークできません (Resource temporarily unavailable)
(10/12) 更新 libreadline                                                                  [###################################################] 100%
      1 [main] pacman (7312) C:\msys64\usr\bin\pacman.exe: *** fatal error - cygheap base mismatch detected - 0x18031C400/0x180320400.
This problem is probably due to using incompatible versions of the cygwin DLL.
Search for cygwin1.dll using the Windows Start->Find/Search facility
and delete all but the most recent version.  The most recent version *should*
reside in x:\cygwin\bin, where 'x' is the drive on which you have
installed the cygwin distribution.  Rebooting is also suggested if you
are unable to find another cygwin DLL.
8229656 [main] pacman 35528 fork: child -1 - forked process 7312 died unexpectedly, retry 0, exit code 0xC0000142, errno 11
エラー: 新しいプロセスをフォークできません (Resource temporarily unavailable)
(11/12) 更新 mintty                                                                       [###################################################] 100%
(12/12) 更新 pacman                                                                       [###################################################] 100%
~:$

forkエラーが発生してしまった場合は

pacman実行中に以下のようなforkエラーが発生した場合、pacman自体は正常終了しているように見えますが、そのパッケージの更新に失敗しています。そのため、forkエラーが発生したパッケージを手動で再インストールする必要があります。